In an infusion approach there is a dual emphasis on content and process, on conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge, on deeper understanding and improved thinking.
The framework for thinking skills employed by Swartz and Parks is similar to that in Dimensions of Thinking, but is distinctive in important ways.
by building meaningful connections between incoming information and prior knowledge, incorporating this integrated information into a new understanding.""is changing existing knowledge structures to incorporate new information.
Because of new insights, the learner actively modifies, extends, reorganizes, or even discards past understandings. This recasting of ideas is a major part of conceptual growth, and ultimately of cognitive development."In IDM the focal point for all of these skills is theory, which is defined broadly so it includes organized systems of concepts in science (physical, biological, social, economic,...) and in math, business, and other areas, and also interpretations of events in real life (in current or historical situations) and in fiction.
IDM can help students understand how theories are constructed (by inference), why they are accepted or rejected (due to evaluation), and how they can be useful (for predicting) during the process of solving problems in many types of design.
Because the potential educational value of IDM-and-ISM in promoting the learning of theories (i.e., concepts, principles, comprehensions,...) is further enhanced.The first action — which begins before objectives are defined because observational information provides the basis for recognizing that a problem/opportunity exists — is to gather information.Dimensions emphasizes that information can be old or new.These "creative thinking skills" are included in the discussions of creativity in Dimensions and IDM, but do not appear in either framework.However, the general category of Creative Thinking is in the Dimensions framework.In the Chapters 2 and 3 of Dimensions describe two broad functions of IDM: to promote metacognitive "thinking about thinking" and to provide a structure that shows how creativity and criticality can be fluently combined in problem solving., the process of design begins by recognizing a problem (which, broadly defined, is an opportunity to make things better or to prevent things from getting worse) and defining an overall objective.Following this, you can define goals for the desired characteristics of the product, strategy, or theory that is the objective.As defined in Dimensions of Thinking, the Focusing Skills deal primarily with defining the objective(s) that will motivate and guide all actions during the process of design.It is a logically organized framework for thinking skills: IDM is an integrated system that shows how different aspects of thinking are related and how they can be effectively coordinated.Another level of integration occurs when IDM provides a "common context" by showing that similar thinking skills and methods are used in a wide variety of activities.