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Specifically, the study examined the level of variability of peak demand in the period before and after implementation of power factor improvement schemes and assesses the likely impact of power factor improvement schemes on peak demand.
Energy saving initiatives such as the power factor improvement scheme of ERT-2 project contribute significantly in mitigating and stabilizing peak or maximum demand of electrical network resources (Schneider Electric ).
In countries such as Uganda where electricity supply barely meets the system demand requirements, policymakers, regulators, system operators as well as distribution network operators are always wary of any likely surge in the maximum demand that may propagate system outages and hence jeopardize the quality of electricity supply.
Results from the energy audit studies in Uganda showed that most of the large industries in the country were energy inefficient, with the power factor ranging between 0.52 and 0.85 (see Fig in Appendix); yet Uganda’s Electricity (Primary Grid Code) Regulations, 2003, require that the power factor for electricity distributors and big consumers should not fall below 0.9.
This is because the power factor, which is defined as the ratio of ‘active or productive power’ (measured in kilowatts—k W) used in the circuit to the ‘reactive or apparent power’ (expressed in kilo-volt amperes—k VA) is the percentage of electricity that is used to do useful work in electrical equipment (Bhatia ).
According PSFU-BUDS, however, as of the third quarter of 2014, up to 21 manufacturing companies (see Fig.
in Appendix) had benefited from the scheme leading to a total saving of 8.04 MVA of demand equivalent to 8.4 MW of electricity.
Much as the ERT-2 project was approved in 2009, actual implementation of the power factor improvement scheme started in 2011 but in a slow pace.
Implementation of this component gained pace by late 2012 and up to 80 % of the realized savings of 8.04 MVA of demand have been achieved between 20.
More recently, in 2006, Uganda experienced a deficit in electricity supply owing to a prolonged drought, delayed development of the 250 MW Bujagali hydropower project, and demand growth (Mawejje et al. Consequently, between 20, the Uganda Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development (MEMD) with support from the World Bank conducted targeted energy audit studies of large manufacturing plants with the highest potential to save electricity (World Bank ).
These studies evaluated the costs required to implement the energy conservation measures with a special focus on the efficient use of electricity.