Second, leadership elicits voluntary action on the part of followers.
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The Ohio State studies utilized the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ), administering it to samples of individuals in the military, manufacturing companies, college administrators, and student leaders.
Answers to the questionnaire were factor-analyzed to determine if common leader behaviors emerged across samples.
Little was known about the psychometric properties of the measures used to operationalize traits.
As a result, different studies were likely to use different measures to assess the same construct, which made it very difficult to replicate findings.
Three main theoretical frameworks have dominated leadership research at different points in time.
These included the trait approach (1930s and 1940s), the behavioral approach (1940s and 1950s), and the contingency or situational approach (1960s and 1970s).
The conclusion was that there were two distinct aspects of leadership that describe how leaders carry out their role.
Two factors, termed consideration and initiating structure, consistently appeared.
Leadership can be defined as a process by which one individual influences others toward the attainment of group or organizational goals.
Three points about the definition of leadership should be emphasized. Leadership cannot exist without a leader and one or more followers.