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Thus far, we have discussed Instrumentation as related to mostly quantitative measurement.
Establishing validity and reliability in qualitative research can be less precise, though participant/member checks, peer evaluation (another researcher checks the researcher’s inferences based on the instrument (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005), and multiple methods (keyword: ), are convincingly used.
There are numerous statistical tests and measures to assess the validity of quantitative instruments, which generally involves pilot testing.
The remainder of this discussion focuses on external validity and content validity. Establishing eternal validity for an instrument, then, follows directly from sampling.Second, validity is more important than reliability.Using the above example, college admissions may consider the SAT a reliable test, but not necessarily a valid measure of other quantities colleges seek, such as leadership capability, altruism, and civic involvement.The SPIN is a 17-item measure purported to assess the full spectrum of social phobia symptomatology.Previously, psychometric research on the SPIN in adult populations has demonstrated its validity and reliability.Researchers chose which type of instrument, or instruments, to use based on the research question.Examples are listed below: is the extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and performs as it is designed to perform.(the process of developing, testing, and using the device).Instruments fall into two broad categories, researcher-completed and subject-completed, distinguished by those instruments that researchers administer versus those that are completed by participants.In the current psychometric examination, results revealed strong support for both the temporal stability and construct validity of the SPIN, suggesting it is an appropriate screening measure for the assessment of social phobia in adolescents.Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.