*The only funct term would be zero and we have already shown that all the terms with even indices are zero, as expected.*

Finding zero coefficients in such problems is time consuming and can be avoided.

With knowledge of even and odd functions, a zero coefficient may be predicted without performing the integration.

The even terms (green and cyan) will integrate to zero (because they are equally above and below zero).

Though this is a simple example, the concept applies for more complicated functions, and for higher harmonics.

This presents no conceptual difficult, but may require more integrations.

For example if the function looks like the one below Since this has no obvious symmetries, a simple Sine or Cosine Series does not suffice.In some special cases where the Fourier series can be summed in closed form, this technique can even yield analytic solutions. Any set of functions that form a complete orthogonal system have a corresponding generalized Fourier series analogous to the Fourier series. Recall: A function `y = f(t)` is said to be even if `f(-t) = f(t)` for all values of `t`. We can also see that it is an odd function, so we know `a_0= 0` and `a_n= 0`.The graph of an even function is always symmetrical about the y-axis (i.e. `f(t) = 2 cos πt` We can see from the graph that it is periodic, with period `2pi`. So we will only need to find b `b_n=1/pi int_(-pi)^pif(t)sin nt\ dt` `=1/pi(int_(-pi)^0 -3\ sin nt\ dt` `{: int_0^pi 3\ sin nt\ dt)` `=3/pi([(cos nt)/n]_(-pi)^0 [-(cos nt)/n]_0^pi)` `=3/(pi n)(cos 0-cos(-pi n)` `-cos n pi` `{: cos 0)` `=3/(pi n)(2-cos pi n-cos pi n)` `=6/(pi n)(1-cos pi n)` `=12/(pi n)\ (n\ "odd") or` `=0\ (n\ "even")` is non-zero for n odd, we must also have odd multiples of t within the sine expression (the even ones are multiplied by `0`, so will be `0`). It should closely resemble the square wave we started with.Fourier series make use of the orthogonality relationships of the sine and cosine functions. An Elementary Treatise on Fourier's Series, and Spherical, Cylindrical, and Ellipsoidal Harmonics, with Applications to Problems in Mathematical Physics. The computation and study of Fourier series is known as harmonic analysis and is extremely useful as a way to break up an arbitrary periodic function into a set of simple terms that can be plugged in, solved individually, and then recombined to obtain the solution to the original problem or an approximation to it to whatever accuracy is desired or practical. If you hit the middle button, you will see a square wave with a duty cycle of 0.5 (i.e., it is high 50% of the time).A Fourier series is an expansion of a periodic function in terms of an infinite sum of sines and cosines. Using the method for a generalized Fourier series, the usual Fourier series involving sines and cosines is obtained by taking and . Since these functions form a complete orthogonal system over , the Fourier series of a function is given by and , 2, 3, ....

## Comments How To Solve Fourier Series Problems

## Exercises on Fourier Series

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## Fourier Series of Even and Odd Functions

Apr 12, 2018. When finding Fourier Series of even or odd functions, we don't need to find. Finding zero coefficients in such problems is time consuming and.…