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When there is a parenthetical word or phrase within an already parenthetical phrase, square brackets are used in American English ([ ]); however, parentheses are used in both British English and legal documents (( )).Although rare, braces (curly brackets) are used to denote a list within a list.[(3 2) × (6 – 4) 2] × 4 The expression in parentheses would be solved first, that in the square brackets would be solved second, and that not inside the brackets would be solved last.
Since there are many reasons to use parentheses, be sure that the function of parentheses is always made clear to your readers. To include extra information The first function of parentheses is to offer extra information.
Parentheses communicate to readers that the material inside the parentheses is not necessary to understand the main sentence, nor is it part of the grammar of the main sentence, but is pertinent enough to be included.
The use of this punctuation is standard in academic writing; however, there are some exceptions to this standard.
The four main paired punctuation symbols are the bracket (or square bracket; also called parenthesis in British English), the parenthesis (plural: parentheses), the brace (curly bracket in British English), and the inequality sign (pointy bracket).
Specific paired punctuation is used in writing to set words off from other words in the same sentence.
These paired punctuations such as brackets can be used as delimiters to determine the order of performing calculations within a mathematical equation, or to alert the reader to text that is not part of a quotation, is incorrect in its original form, or has been omitted.It is possible to designate the angle bracket in professional typesetting to avoid this issue, but using the pointy brackets is acceptable.With a few exceptions, both American and British English use these paired symbols in the same way, although the terminology might differ.2010 for a detailed description of the analyses)” clarifies that Winston et al.established the method by which this analysis was carried out, but may not have necessarily had the same findings. To introduce abbreviations The first time that an abbreviation appears in the main text, it should appear within parentheses next to its full form: “Interest rates at First Regional Bank (FRB) have risen steadily over the past 20 years, despite FRB’s official corporate policy of offering affordable rates to the community.” If you offer an abbreviation of a translated term, please specify its original-language form in a parenthetical citation, in italics.However, if there are other commas in the sentence, this method of punctuation can become ambiguous, as in the following example:“My sister, according to Emily, who considers herself almost another parent, has always been the smartest person in the family.” Here, the use of commas as the sole punctuation mark makes it unclear who “considers herself almost another parent”: “my sister” or Emily. To cite authors There are many different formats for citing authors and sources within a scholarly text.Many of these formats request that information such as authors’ names and year of publication be given in a parenthetical citation.When providing citations, be sure that it is clear to your readers what exactly the citation pertains to.For example: “The proportional carbon content of this component, 20%, is very similar to that found in pine trees (Winston et al.The normal sequence or order of use is ; however, this can also differ according to the discipline and which English is used.[ ]: square bracket ( ): parentheses : brace or curly bracket : pointy bracket or inequality sign One more paired punctuation, the angle bracket (〈 〉), is used mainly in mathematics; however, most computer keyboards do not have these symbols and writers tend to use the pointy brackets in its place.