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Assam is home to some 75 species of trees, many of which have commercial value.Sal (World Heritage sites—the Kaziranga National Park (designated in 1985), on the bank of the Brahmaputra River, and the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (designated in 1992), near the border with Bhutan.The Rengma Hills to the south of the ridge average about 3,000 feet (900 metres).
The capital, formerly Shillong (now the capital of Meghalaya), was shifted to Dispur, a suburb of Guwahati, in 1972. Of those regions, the Brahmaputra River valley is the largest.
According to Hindu mythology, the Brahmaputra rises as the son of the god Brahma from a sacred pool known as the Brahmakund, in neighbouring Arunachal Pradesh.
The name Assam is derived from the word , meaning “peerless” in the now extinct Ahom language. Assam, which is shaped roughly like a Y laid on its side, is a land of plains and river valleys.
The neighbouring states of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, and Meghalaya were once part of Assam. The state has three principal physical regions: the Brahmaputra River valley in the north, the Barak River (upper Surma River) valley in the south, and the hilly region between Meghalaya (to the west) and Nagaland and Manipur (to the east) in the south-central part of the state.
Geologically, the Brahmaputra and Barak valleys lie on ancient alluvial sediments, which themselves cover a variety of deposits from the Neogene and Paleogene periods (i.e., some 2.6 to 65 million years old).
Among those deposits are hard sandstone, soft and loose sand, conglomerates, coal seams, shales, sandy clays, and limestone.The cool season generally lasts from October to February and is marked by fogs and brief showers.The state escapes the normal Indian hot, dry season.Both are refuges for the fast-disappearing Indian one-horned rhinoceros, and the sanctuary at Manas is known especially for its tigers and leopards.Among the other notable inhabitants of Assam’s forests are elephants, gaurs (wild oxen), wild pigs, various species of deer, and primates, such as langurs and hoolock gibbons.Common birds include cormorants, herons, ducks, and other water birds, as well as warblers, thrushes, owls, and peacocks.Hornbills are characteristic of Assam, although they are endangered in some areas.excessively fearful to travel back into their damaged places after India’s most powerful temblor in half a century. “The temblor is a catastrophe of national magnitude. It generally has a northerly slope, with average elevations ranging from about 1,500 feet (450 metres) to about 3,300 feet (1,000 metres).Roughly between the Brahmaputra valley and the south-central hill region are the northern ranges, which extend northeastward from Dabaka (east of Dispur) to Bokakhat in east-central Assam.