Cloning And Ethical Issues Essay

The main goal of genetic engineering is to add a new gene into the target organism, to enable it to mimic the trait encoded by the inserted gene.

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Association of Reproductive Health Professionals defines Human genetic engineering (HEG) or Human Genetic Modification (HGM) as a process through which medical professionals and scientists alter the DNA or genetic makeup of a living human cell.

HGE is used to fix genetic complications and genetic genes that cause diseases.

This process is known as gene cloning (Council for Responsible Genetics).

The extracted gene may be slightly modified before insertion into the target organism. The transgene is inserted into the cells of the recipient organism, a process known as transformation.

Genetic Engineering can increase the life span of the human population.

Scientists argue that by use of genetic modification, the average range of human life span could be increased to anywhere from 100 and 150 years because the modifications can lead to a deceleration in aging process (Bledrzycki, 2005).The aim for somatic engineering is to cure or treat an existing condition, and does not alter genetic makeup (Haga & Willard, 2006).Compared to somatic, germline engineering is more controversial since it affects the future of reproduction, because germline modifications are passed from generation to generation (Isasi et al., 2006).Genetic engineering is also known as genetic modification.It is the process by which a new type of DNA is manually added to an organism, or the manipulation or modification of the genome of an organism by use of biotechnology.As a result, the human population may be susceptible to unknown forms of diseases or even viruses, and this may lead to the extinction of the human population on earth (Simmons, 2008).The laws regulating and governing human genetic engineering differ from one country to another.Countries that have developed laws prohibiting human gene engineering include Canada, Germany, and the United States.Countries like France, China, and Japan have set up guidelines that monitor gene therapy in clinical trials.DNA cloning involves transferring a DNA part from an organism to a genetic element with self-replicating abilities to enable the DNA to undergo self-replication in a foreign host cell (Annas et al., 2002). It has the capacity to eradicate the development of disease processes.The gene mutations can arrest diseases like cystic fibrosis, cardiac diseases, and Alzheimer’s disease.


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