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Politically, because they were geographically open to envision, Mesopotamia culture created compact self-governing political units- the city-states. And although the kings took over control of temples, Mesopotamian kings did not claim divine power. E., the written law code of King Hammurabi, was used to maintain political authority and continuity. Unlike Mesopotamian kings, the Egyptian king was represented as Horus and as the son of Re, and fit into the pattern of the dead returning to life and the climatic renewing life of the sun-god.Political changes occurred in Mesopotania because of the succession of people that followed the initial Sumerian people, like the Akkadians, the Kassites Medes and Persians who established their temporary political dominance. In sharp contrast is the continuity of political history in ancient Egypt. As Egypt’s chief priest, he intervened with the gods on behalf of his people and land. The pharaoh governed the country through a large efficient bureaucracy.The lowest class of people tended the fields and used their strength in the off-season to build large public works like ziggarets. In the Old Babylonian period, the class of people who were not dependent on the temple or palace grew, the amount of land and other property in private hands increased, and free laborers became more common.
Like Egyptian hieroglyphs, cuneiform was written in both rows and columns although cuneiform was only written from left to right.
The Egyptian and Mesopotamian societies were very similar in many aspects of their lives.
Compared to Mesopotamia, a far larger percentage of the Egyptian population lived in farming villages and Egypt’s wealth derived from a higher degree from cultivating the land.
When not need for agriculture the peasants labored to build the tombs of the pharaoh.
The Egyptians did not take to the Sumerian cuneiform alphabet and developed a hieroglyphic alphabet instead.
Hieroglyphics, though more pictorial than Sumerian cuneiform, were based on simplified pictures of objects abstracted to represent concepts or sounds.
They both had their own form of writing; Mesopotamia had cuneiform, and Egypt had hieroglyphics and cursive script, respectively. the concept of king (lugal) developed, quite possibly because of increased quarrels over resources.
While they are similar in many different political, social, and cultural activities and ideas, they have enough contrast to be viewed as different societies. The power of religious leaders decreased as the power of kings increased.
Marriage, usually monogamous, arose from a couple’s decision to establish a household together rather than for legal or religious ceremony.
Both parties could dissolve the relationship, and women retained rights over her dowry in case of divorce.